Daniel’s Eschatology

     The remains of the three successive World-kingdoms would in turn ultimately be amalgamated into the last great empire of the ancient World, namely the "iron" kingdom which would replace the brass kingdom of Hellenism.1753    Hence, this fourth or iron kingdom was the Empire of Ancient Rome — according to all pre-Christian Israelites and all post-Christian Judaists and all Early-Church and all Mediaeval and all Reformational Theologians.    

     Such include Judaistic writings such as: the Targums; IV Ezra 12:10; the Talmud (Abodah Zarah 2b); the Midrash; and the Pseudepigrapha — as well as those of: Flavius Josephus; Johanan ben Zakka; Akiba ben Joseph; Saadia ben Joseph al-Fayyami; Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer; Jephet ibn Ali; Rashi Solomon ben Isaac; Abraham ben Ezra; Moses ben Maimonides; Levi ben Gershon; Don Isaac ben Judah ben Abravanel; and Josef David ben Yachya; etc.   Also included here are ancient syncretistic-pagan writings — like the Sibylline Oracles — which too identify the fourth kingdom with Ancient Rome.