Human genetic engineering, cloning, and genetic recombination
In HGE, we are concerned solely with pre-conception-al procedures — occurring before the existence of the person(s) to be most affected. HGE may be either non-conception-al or pro-conception-al. So we shall here look at pre-conception-al non-conception-al cloning — and also at the different pre-conception-al and pro-conception-al genetic recombinations — as distinct from post-conception-al embryonic improvements etc.
We shall not here discuss Corrective Embryonic Surgery (or CES). For CES — although sometimes miscalled ‘genetic engineering’ — is essentially different. Indeed, CES does not alter the genes or the pro-conception-al cells in organic matter prior to conception in the way both cloning and DNA recombinations do.